Archive for January 15th, 2009

Strategies for Community Food Security: The Local Foods Coop

Sharon January 15th, 2009

So a while back on a list I read, there was a discussion about who should lead a national movement to sustainability that addressed our current set of crises.  This is a big question, and a big job.  My personal vote for our Gandhi was Bob Waldrop, and no, I wasn’t kidding.  If you don’t know him and his work, you should check him out at www.bobwaldrop.net. He’s one of the few people on the planet I think who could actually move mountains. Among his many other accomplishments he’s run for mayor of Oklahoma City (I’d vote for him for anything – the man is a national treasure) and he was the founder of the US’s first local foods coop http://www.oklahomafood.coop/.  Here’s a great sample of some of his wonderful and compelling writing: http://depletion-abundance.blogspot.com/2008/02/bob-waldrop.html or you can read the interview he kindly gave us at hen and harvest: http://henandharvest.com/?p=107 (You can also play  “duelling best beards in the Peak Oil Movement” option if you want to check out our interview with the great Albert Bates: http://henandharvest.com/?p=186 ;-).)

The food coop is, I think, one of the best tools available to us for community food security – and for just plain getting better stuff to eat.  The magic of it is that you don’t have to believe in any particular worldview to think that bringing great local farm food to consumers is worthwhile.  Food coops are a gift to all of us even if nothing bad ever happens and we manage to start running the planet on hot air or snow or something (I’ll happily volunteer some of my snow for the greater good ;-) ). 

There was a time when coops popped up all over, but perhaps because of the growth of whole foods and farmer’s markets, the coop model hasn’t been as popular – but it needs to be brought back.  It connects people with local resources, and as solid, stable markets are created, it encourages other people to join in the project of growing food, preserving food and otherwise fostering local economies and everything else that’s good.    There are more and more local food coops built on Bob’s model – here are links to find them:   http://www.oklahomafood.coop/otherstates.php.  So far they are almost all in the west – I think we folks in the East had better get our acts together and create one!

And not only did Bob pull together this amazing local food system (with help, this a good bit of work and not a solo project), but he’s given instructions on how to start one in your community. http://oklahomafood.coop/organizing.php.  There is even software available for tracking orders and putting things together here: http://www.localfoodcoop.org/.  So you really have no excuse for not starting one in your town or region, do you?

Remember, this is potentially not just a way to bring in food, but a way to get more people involved in the local economy – Bob doesn’t just make the show run, he sells his own bulghur and hot sauce through the coop.  You could do that too! 

Sharon

Random Favorite Food Storage Recipes

Sharon January 15th, 2009

Hi Folks: The recipes here cover the range of food storage and preservation techniques, from recipes for eating out of your root cellar and season extension to straight pantry cooking.  I thought some of them might be fun additions to your menus.  These are some of my favorites.

Tex-Mex Millet: Another recipe borrowed (ok, stolen) from _Veganomicon_, this frankly, kicks ass.  It tastes like Spanish rice, but better.  I’ve changed it to be a bit more of a pantry thing, but the original is pretty terrific too.  Maybe they won’t sue me if you run out and buy their cookbook.

2 tbsp butter or oil

2 cloves garlic

1 cup millet

1 onion

2 pickled jalapenos, diced, or to taste (I like a lot more, but then I’m a chile head)

2 cups vegetable or chicken broth or bullion

5 tablespoons tomato paste

½ tsp salt

1 tsp ground cumin

½ tsp ground coriander

Sautee the onion, garlic and jalapeno in the oil until golden and soft, about 7 minutes.  Add the millet, stir and sautee another 5 minutes, until the millet looks golden and toasted.  Pour in the broth and add tomato paste, salt, cumin and coriander. Bring the mixture to a boil, lower heat, cover and cook on lowest setting for ½ hour, or until all the liquid is absorbed.  Fluff up and eat.______________

Dehydrator Apple Granola bars: My kids love granola bars, and I love that I don’t have to actually bake these.  These are very tasty and have absolutely no fat in them, other than what’s naturally in the oats

 3 tart apples 
2 cups rolled oats 
1/2 cup silvered almonds 
2 tbsp. brown sugar 
1 tbsp. honey in 1/4 cup water 
1 tsp. salt 
1/2 tsp. cinnamon 

Peel and grate apples. Place in a bowl with the other ingredients and toss lightly until thoroughly mixed. Place mixture on a dehydrator sheet and dry for 2 to 3 hours, or until crunchy. Cut into bars and store in an airtight container.__________________

Pumpkin Pancakes: These are extremely nutritious, really tasty, cheap and filling.  My kids adore them, and so do the adults.  I like them with cranberry sauce, actually, but maple syrup is traditional.

1 cup pumpkin, squash or sweet potato puree

1 egg plus 1 tbsp soy flour (or 2 eggs)

1 cup milk, buttermilk, soymilk or water

3 tbsp honey or sugar

1/2 tsp salt

2 ½ cups whole wheat flour

Mix together egg, orange vegetable puree, honey and liquid.  Mix dry ingredients.  Whisk together and fry in a pan with a little oil over medium heat.  Eat with jam, apples sauce, honey, maple syrup or pancake syrup.________________

Beets with Tahini Sauce: Ok, I know you hate beets, or think you do, but this is the platonic beet recipe – people who hate beets coming running up to beg for seconds, I swear.  There is something about this amazing combination that just transforms the beets.  Try it – really.  I’ve adapted the recipe from May Bsisu’s spectacular book _The Arab Table_.

5 large or 10 small beets, peeled and diced.

2 tbsp oil

3 tbsp yogurt

2 tbsp tahini

½ tsp cinnamon

½ tsp cumin

Salt and pepper to taste

Coat the diced beets with oil and roast in a 425 oven until tender (you can steam them if you prefer).  Meanwhile, mix all other ingredients.  When the beets are tender, toss with the tahini-yogurt sauce.  This can be served warm, cool or at room temperature and is absolutely amazingly good.

________________

Bamboo Shoot Soup – If you have bamboo, you have bamboo shoots.  You can use the canned ones, but they aren’t as tasty.  This soup kicks butt when you are tired or grumpy or sick

6 cups vegetable stock (or chicken or whatever)

3 tbsp light soy sauce or to taste

1 tbsp sugar

2 cups julienned sliced bamboo shoots (you can used canned too, although the taste is inferior)

1 cup diced carrots

1 cup sliced onions

1 cup sliced mushrooms (you can used dried and rehydrated shiitakes or fresh mushrooms)

1 cup dried tofu sheets (available at asian grocers), broken into bite sized pieces

3 tbsp cornstarch

1 tsp white pepper

¼ cup of hot sauce (or to taste – we use chile-garlic paste) 

Bring stock to a boil. Add soy sauce, sugar and vegetables and cook until vegetables are tender.  Dissolve cornstarch in ¼ cup cold water, and stir into soup. Keep stirring until mixture thickens, about 5 minutes.  Adjust seasonings to taste.  Serve with hot sauce and fresh cilantro, if available._____________

Stuffed Cabbage with Dried Fruits, Mushrooms and Wild Rice: This is adapted from Georgeanne Brennan’s lovely book _France: The Vegetarian Table_ and has become my favorite way to eat stuffed cabbage.

1 large cabbage (savoy is the easiest to separate)

2 tsp salt

4 tbsp butter or good oil

1 large onion, diced

10 dried prunes, chopped

¼ cup golden or regular raisins

4 dried apricots, chopped

¾ fresh or dried and reconstituted wild mushrooms – the more flavorful the better

2 tsp while pepper

1 tsp ground cumin

1 tbsp chopped rosemary

2 cups wild rice (can use regular rice or another grain, but wild rice is the best) cooked until tender in meat or vegetable broth or apple cider

1/3 cup heavy cream

Vegetable or chicken broth

Peel off the dry outer leaves of the cabbage, if any.  Put the whole cabbage in a pot, cover with water and add salt, and boil for 15 minutes.  Remove cabbage from pot and drain in a colander until cool.  Unwrap and remove leaves from the outside in, setting gradually aside.  When it becomes impossible to keep removing leaves, cut the stem out of the center, and chop the center cabbage – you should have six cups of chopped cabbage.  Melt the butter in a large skillet, sauté cabbage and onions until transluscent.  Add dried fruit and mushrooms and cook for 5-7 minutes, until tender.  Add pepper, cumin and salt to taste.  Remove from heat and mix with cream and rice.Wrap a small amount of filling in each cabbage leaf, fold until closed and place in a baking dish. Pour enough vegetable broth over to come about halfway up on the cabbage, cover baking dish and bake 35 minutes, until tender.

Enjoy!

 Sharon

Storing Pet Food

Sharon January 15th, 2009

I warn y’all, this will probably be incomplete by necessity – there’s no way I could hope to discuss every single pet or critter in existence.  You’ll have to research your own sustainable African Pygmy Squirrel diet, I’m afraid.  Actually, I’m going, just for reasons of length, to say that we’ll stick, today, to cats and dogs. 

 But for those of us with traditional pets and critters, the question of storage always arises.  Obviously, we want to take good care of our animals.  And good care is complicated – is it better to have more, lower quality food with a longer shelf life, or higher quality food with a shorter one?

 My own feeling is that it is a balancing act to find the optimal combination of nutrition and storage life.  It isn’t always trade off like above, but sometimes it is.  I’m assuming here that we want what it best for our animals, but also for their humans – that is, a balanced perspective that makes sure they have the healthiest possible food, that supports the best possible principles, and our longer term objectives.

 So let’s start with dogs.  Dogs are omnivores, and capable of more flexible diets than many animals.  Dogs have been known to thrive on commercial pet foods, on raw food diets like BARF and on homemade, cooked dog foods.  Originally, dogs lived mostly on human scraps and their own hunting and foraging.

Dogs do have very sensitive stomachs – which means that if you plan to have your dog live on something in a crisis, the ideal is to have them eat it now, at least as part of their diet.  They do not handle abrupt shifts very well.

Most basic commercial dry dog foods come with a 1-year lifespan – this is before opening.  Unlike most human foods, most Vets seem to agree that dog and cat foods should be stored IN THE ORIGINAL PACKAGING – that the packaging itself provides a measure of freshness – so if you are storing pet foods, I would recommend keeping them in airtight containers, in the original packaging – perhaps in large storage bins.  This is kind of awkward, but provides a measure of reduction of rancidity and vitamin loss.

 I don’t love commercial pet foods – besides the problem of industrial food production in general, they often have an awful lot of crap in them.  Many of the cheaper versions are high in corn, which is tough to digest.  I’ve written before about the ethical issues of the meat product sources – at this point, 1 in 7 cows in the US feedlot system doesn’t qualify for human consumption due to ill health – almost all of them go to the pet food industry, and IMHO, they make the feedlot system viable – that is, if we weren’t willing to feed the sick cows to our pets, the losses of a system that makes 1 in 7 too sick to be slaughtered by the rather appallingly low standards of the industry would be too big a cost to bear.  I’m also not convinced that these sick cows are good for dogs.

The other issue that some pet food companies actually use euthanized dogs and cats as a protein form in their pet foods – besides the ethical issues for animal lovers, this seems to be a dangerous disease vector.

The pluses of these foods is that they do keep a long time, and that they probably have a reasonably balanced diet in them.  These may be the single easiest storage option - they should keep a full year.  Accumulating a year’s supply of food is fairly inexpensive, a non-trivial consideration for strapped households.  It is always better, IMHO, to feed our animals imperfect food than to end up abandoning or euthanizing them because we cannot afford them.

I distinguish high quality, organic commercial pet foods from the general run of commercial pet foods.  These usually use better, organic meats, and there is more meat and fewer and better fillers.  These are generally better for your pet, and worth it if you can afford them.  They should probably only be stored 6 months, however, because there are more oils that may go rancid.  Again, keep the food in the original packaging.

 Wet canned dog foods vary a lot in quality and nutrients – the low quality industrial ones have the same problems as the above, while if you have the money, there are some good things out there.  Canned foods will store for several years and can expand your storage – even if you can’t store enough for your animal to live on, they could balance a homemade or cheap dry food diet.

Next, there’s a BARF diet, which involves feeding your animals mostly raw meats.  There is some controversy about the inclusion of raw vegetables in this menu, you’ll need to do your own research on that.  I’ve seen many BARF animals do extremely well – the problem is that in a crisis, a BARF diet requires you to be an adept butcher and have a large quantity of livestock on the hoof or small animals easily caught.  This, to me, seems unlikely – I don’t discourage people from trying to hunt pest animals in tough times for their pets, but I don’t think relying on this as a primary diet is something we can expect.

Which brings us to homemade pet foods.  There are a lot of recipes out there, and I think that most of these are probably pretty good, although I do suggest storing vitamin supplements if your vet recommends them.  Generally speaking, these consist of either brown rice or rolled oats, some meat, eggs or milk and some vegetables, all cooked together.  There’s some good precedent for these diets in dogs – for example, herding dogs in the Pyrenees lived in milk and oatmeal.  Some dogs, at least are well adapted to them.

My own feeling is that a combination of a small amount of stored commercial dog food (the very best quality you can afford)  and homemade supplements may be the best option overall for long term storage – that is, your storage of commercial dogfoods will last longer if you only need a little of it, to balance them nutritionally, and that can provide meats that may be hard to come by in storage.  For example, we can store oats and dried milk, which can be made into yogurt and mixed with canned vegetables for a pretty decent fresh food, to combine with the commercial dry food.  Homemade recipes that rely on inexpensive vegetables, bulk purchased grains and either home canned or raised meats and eggs, or bulk purchased dairy dry dairy products (or your own homegrown, obviously) will probably do well in both the nutritional and pocketbook department.

These two sites have recipes and nutritional information about homemade dog foods:

http://www.gourmetsleuth.com/dogfoodrecipes.htm

http://www.dog-obedience-training-review.com/dog-food-recipes.html 

Ok, what about kitties?  Cats differ from dogs in that they are obligate carnivores – they *have* to eat primarily meat.  While dogs can get along on a vegetarian diet, cats really can’t – yes, I know some people do it, but I’ve not found any vet that recommends it. 

Cat dry and wet foods have approximately the same issues as dog ones – they have some virtues and some non-virtues.  I won’t rehash, because they aren’t that different.  I will say that I’m somewhat persuaded by this vet who recommends against feeding any cat an exclusively dry food diet (she’s got a good cat fud recipe too, a lot of information about nutrition, and some strong opinions disagreed with by two of the vets I consulted, but ymmv):  http://www.catinfo.org/makingcatfood.htm.  The above vet also says we shouldn’t be feeding beef at all to cats, for various reasons – I don’t know if that’s right, but she certainly has a point when she notes that cows probably were not the usual prey of small cats in the wild, and I admit, I enjoyed the image it generated.

Because meat is expensive, energy intensive and time consuming to store without a freezer, storing the components of homemade cat food without electricity gets more complex than storing the components of homemade dog food – that is, cats can’t live long on brown rice and milk.  They can and should have small amounts of vegetables in their food, particularly greens, but the majority of their food should be meat based.

A homemade storable diet for cats, assuming that you don’t have a large livestock farm and lots of butchering offal to offer them, would probably involve raising a meat source – pigeons, quail or rabbits being the most accessible to apartment dwellers.  This could be mixed with Vitamin E tablets, cod liver oil,  the eggs of any poultry kept, kelp or iodized salt and bone meal.  Canned clams (not tuna in large quantities) might supply some of the taurine, as might the hearts of butchered animals or hearts obtained from anyone who didn’t want them.

 I have to say, however, that unless you are prepared to raise and butcher livestock, or unless you are committed to pressure canning a ton of cat food, it probably makes sense to store the highest quality commercial foods you can afford for your cats, both from a cost standpoint and from a cat health standpoint.

If I had no choice, my solution for my cats would be to do the best I could, to provide as much meat as possible.  What I wouldn’t do if I could avoid it is turn them loose to hunt their own – feral or loose cats are a major predator for a number of threatened species of bird and small animals.  Just as I don’t think it is cool to use excess kitties in cat food to keep our pets fed, I don’t think it is ok to drive other animals to extinctions.  So that means being prepared.

 For both species, I recommend people also store a bit of kelp (for trace minerals) and nutritional yeast (which provides B vitamins and improves their health).

Edited to add: As people are considering their steps into the informal economy, one area I think might be extremely successful is the production of local, sustainably produced, small scale pet foods.  Even though people have less money to spend, many are extremely attached to their pets (me too), and if you can produce reasonably cost effective, healthy dog or cat foods, that might be a small business that was both useful now and one that might take off if the supply lines for conventional pet foods get cut or people simply want to support local economies.  I recommend it as a possible job.

Sharon

 Sharon  

Sourdough

Sharon January 15th, 2009

Sourdough is not specifically a method of preserving bread, although I do find that my sourdough loaves stay fresh longer than my yeasted ones.  But sourdough is a food preservation issue in two ways.  First, it is a ferment, which acts to preserve something (in this case, leavening power), it is also a substitute for a perishable commercial product, commercial yeast.  It is possible to capture yeasts directly, but sourdough is easier to keep and maintain, and it is delicious as well.

In order to get sourdough, you need to make a sour.  Now you can buy them at various places, but quite honestly, I think that’s not very appealing – why find some commercially uniform source of sourdough when you could have the fun and benefit of harvesting wild critters and tasting what your natural ecology produces.

 Thus, I offer up this reference: http://www.sourdoughhome.com/startingastarter.html  There’s enough info here to keep you busy for a while – happy baking!

 Sharon